Socrates and Passive Solar in Greece
Socrates, the Greek father of philosophy known for his dialectical method of questioning, was also an astute observer of the sun’s movements.
Over 2,300 years ago, Socrates pontificated:
“Now in houses with a south aspect, the sun’s rays penetrate into the porticos in winter, but in the summer the path of the sun is right over our heads and above the roof, so that there is shade. If, then, this is the best arrangement, we should build the south side loftier to get the winter sun and the north side lower to keep out the winter winds.”
Socrates was referring to the use of the overhang to block the summer sun from entering the building.
The ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus, who preceded Socrates by a hundred years, was even more blunt:
“Only primitives & barbarians lack knowledge of houses turned to face the Winter sun.”
What are they referring to? Take a look at how the difference between the winter and summer sun. The summer sun rotates high in the sky, while the winter sun travels a lower arc.
The massive ancient buildings of Greece have both thermal mass as well as southern facing orientations. They were not the only ancients who used the sun’s seasonal orientation to build.